Friday, September 30, 2016

English Court Hand AD 1066-1500

English court hand, A.D. 1066 to 1500: illustrated chiefly from the public records

The Handwriting of English Documents

The Handwriting of English Documents

Example's of English Handwriting

Examples of English Handwriting, 1150-1750

Thursday, September 29, 2016

ONE OF MY FAVORITE!!!! Hildy!!!!

By Hildegard
von Bingen
Born at Böckelheim on the Nahe, 1098
Died on the Rupertsberg near Bingen, 1179
Age of 8 she was placed under the care of Jutta, sister of Count Meginhard
Started having visons as a young age
Given the command from the Church to record what she saw
Illness over came her often
Physica is her only known non-metaphysical book
German Benedictine abbess, writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, visionary

Earliest book on Natural History written in Germany.
While Brunfels, Fuchs and Bock are called the German Fathers of Botany, really we are more indebted to the German Mother of Botany.
Included recipes handed down through the generations by her predecessors.
Considered a great look into the folk medicine of Germany
Woodcuts from Physica had little to do with the material within. They were borrowed from another medical book.
Original Manuscript c. 1150 – Not Extant
1st Edition – 1533
Book One : Plants
Book Two : Elements
Book Three : Trees
Book Four : Stones
Book Five : Fish
Book Six : Birds
Book Seven : Animals
Book Eight : Reptiles
Book Nine : Metals

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

De Viribus Herbarum - Macer Floridus

The first printed herbal!

De Viribus Herbarum
Macer Floridus

Opening line in Herbal claims it was written by Macer.
Only Macer connected with Herbal writing died in 16 BC
Most scholars believe Odo, Bishop of Meung was the true author.
Odo’s name appears on a 12th Century Manuscript of De Viribus Herbarum, located in Dresden.
A 13th Century Manuscript is titled, De Viribus Herbarum acutore Odone dicto Macro Floridio or Of the Power of Herbs, the author being Odo, Called Macer of Flowers.
Others that could have been the author include, Odo Veronesis, Odo Muremundensis and Hugo of Tours.

Original Manuscript, De Viribus Herbarum, not extant.
Earliest extant Manuyscript, Opus Macri Physici de Viribus Herbarum, now in Vienna.
1st Edition Published in 1477 by printer Arnaldus de Bruxella in Naples.
Written in Latin Verse.
First Edition was unillustrated.
Contained originally 77 Herbs
First edition with illustrations published in 1482 in Milan.
Some versions contain 86 plants, and some as many as 97.
 The Latin Verse it is written in, a hexameter, a poetic verse form, that some believe was used as a mnemonic device for physicians and apothecaries.
Most of the content is derived from Pliny, but also included are Dioscorides, Oribasus, Hippocrates and others. (23 in all according to Ludwig Choulant)

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Pliny the Elder - A Natural History

Herbals are the building blocks of the foundation of Apothecary. They are the text books that hold our knowledge. To understand apothecary we know look back at the period texts. Tonight's Herbals is....

Naturalis Historia
Pliny the Elder
The Death of Pliny the Elder 
Gaius Plinius Secundus
Born in 23 or 24 CE in Novum Comum, a small city in the region known as Gallia Transpadana.
Died in the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius while trying to rescue his friend Pomponianus and his family.
A Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher.

Also a naval and army commander and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian.

Natural History -1470

Earliest known copy – Nonantulus 5th or 6th Century
Earliest Manuscript - Codex Bamburgensis 10th       Century
Leidensis Vossianus -11th Century
Codex Parisinus Latinus – 10th or 11th Century
37 Books
2,000 Manuscripts Referenced
33,727 Items Listed
400 Authors Referenced
One of the largest single works to have survived from the Roman Empire to the modern day and to cover the entire field of ancient knowledge.
Pliny claims to be the only Roman ever to have undertaken such a work.
Covers the fields of botany, zoology, astronomy, geology and mineralogy.
His discussions of some technical advances are the only sources for those inventions
It is virtually the only work which describes the work of artists of the time
A true window into 1st Century Rome.

Monday, September 26, 2016

Smallpox Treatment - 1579

Smallpox are not something that we are concerned with treating these days... as they have been eradicated, however in Tudor England its was a disease feared by many. 

A treatment for smallpox per Bulleins Bulwarke of Defence against All Sicknesse, Soarenesse, and Woundes That Doe Dayly Assaulte Mankinde: Which Bulwarke Is Kept with Hilarius the Gardener, & Health the Phisicion, with the Chirurgian, to Helpe the Wounded Souldiours. Published in 1579. I have transcribed it as it was and then fixed the spelling to help ease of reading. Willian Bulleins was a Nurse-Surgeon for Henry VIII of England. He wrote a book simples and other medicinal cures.

Hope you enjoy looking into the past! 

What is the nature of Sulpher, called Brimstone?
SVLPHER called Brimstone, is hoat and dry in the fourth de∣gree: with this Sulpher, and fyre, God plaged the People of So∣dom, and Gomor, for their abhominable Sinnes against Nature. Supher is one of the simples put into the receypt of Gunpouder, wherewyth God by his instruments hath plaged the proude World with, through mercilesse Gunnes, Sulpher is found in diuers partes of ye worlde, as in vaynes of the Earth, Welles, Pittes, aswell in the colde partes of Iseland, as in the hoat partes of Inde. Of a sulpherous humour it is pre∣supposed that the waters of the Bathes heere in England haue their con∣tinuall warmnesse. Also in Italy in the fielde Senensis, vpon ye mountaines not farre from the warme Bathes of S. Philip, is mutch Brimstone foūde, therefore it is none errour to say that the hoat Bathes haue their originall spryng of Brimstone. Sulpher hath vertue to dry vp Scabbes being tem∣pred wyth fasting spittle, Uinegar, and Swynes grease. It also helpeth Leprous, Scabbes, and Poxes, being sodden in Oyle Debay, and sharpe Uinegar

What is the nature of Sulphur, called Brimstone?
SULPHER called Brimstone, is hot and dry in the fourth degree: with this Sulphur, and fire, God plagued the People of Sodom & Gomora, for their abominable Sines against Nature. Sulphur is one of the simples put into the receipt of Gunpowder, wherewith God by his instruments hath plagued the proud World with, through merciless Guns, 
Sulphur is found in divers parts of ye
world, as in veins of the Earth, Welles, 
Pits,as well in the cold parts of Iceland, 
as in the hot parts of Inde. Of a Sulphurous humour it is presupposed that the waters of the Bathes here in England have their continual warmness. Alsoin Italy in the 
field Senensis upon the mountains not far 
from the warm Bathes of S. Philip, is
much Brimstone found, therefore it is none error to say that the hot Bathes have their original spring of Brimstone. Sulfur hath virtue to dry up scabs being tempered 
with fasting spittle, vinegar, and swine’s grease. It also helps leprous, scabs, and poxes, being sodden in oil debay, and 
sharp vinegar.

HL Seamus O'Caellaigh

Wooo Apothecary Blog!

Hello Blog!

I am super excited to start my blog about Apothecary research. I hope that someone can use it to start their research or help them improve their projects.

I want to cover various sources and basic knowledge. I want to share my struggles, in hope that others will not struggle, and  use it to map out my thoughts.

If there is something specific you would like to know about let me know!!!

HL Seamus O'Caellaigh